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张闽,真名实姓.网络昵称温莎。2007年5月28日开博成为网易中年职业女性情感生活题材的传记散文写手,以原创传记散文为基调开设纪实博客,也撰写杂文和制作音画。以淳朴、自然、清新、细腻的笔触将音乐的韵律和美学的色彩学以及时尚的生活品味融入文学作品,描述现代职业女性生活,前卫不仅体现在着装、音乐、心理等时尚生活元素和品位,更走在政治思想、财政金融等时评类文学的前列、与时俱进。愿志同道合的您跟随我的笔墨,分享生活沉淀和触碰时代脉搏,一同活在我的博客世界里!

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【温莎原创译文】常人对肥胖病人的歧视  

2010-04-13 20:17:42|  分类: 大一作业 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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                           [温莎原创译文]常人对肥胖病人的歧视 - 温莎 - 温莎滴风流娘儿们网易博客

 译文 /  原创翻译者:温莎

《纽约时报》时评杂谈 社会话题

 复旦大学继续教育学院汉语言文学10级英语4级

 

 

 

      当米歇尔·奥巴马最近谈到她女儿的饮食时我佩服得五体投地,因为我的身高体重正是那种以最大三围被列入肥胖目录的女人。不过我肯定第一夫人的关切很好,同时我也肯定肥胖儿童的说辞将为美国超重标准又蒙上了一层羞辱。 

      去年8月,Delos M. Cosgrove博士,心脏手术医生和享有声望的Cleveland Clinic诊所首席执行官,向《纽约时报》栏目记者透露,假如拒绝雇佣任何肥胖雇员是不违法的话,他肯定这么去做了。或许他真的可以这么做,因为没有任何联邦政府指定法律法规保护肥胖工作人员的公民权,只有密歇根州禁止以体重为最起码的用人标准。

Dr. Cosgrove博士也许是个非同寻常的人,他直言不讳地说出了事情的真伪,当然持这种观点的人也不止他一个。公众对肥胖从不过多评判、污辱的态度渐渐变成不仅仅是承受,而且在我参加会议的某种场合,我的同事们做梦都不会轻视人种的肤色、性、经济条件或正常意义上的吸引力,但却会毫不隐讳地对某个人的体重发表令人难堪的议论。

尤其是最近几年,肥胖病人几乎成了所有人身攻击的靶子,“似乎贬低肥胖病人已经成了家常便饭,”Dr. Linda Bacon博士这样说道,这位营养学研究者曾经撰写了《尺寸差异的健康:体重的惊人事实》(2008年发表于Benbella书刊)。“如果我们对气候变暖感到焦虑的话,有人就站出来写一篇肥胖病人如何增肥的书吧,因为他们需要更多的燃料,并且他们抱怨气候变暖的转折点就在于肥胖病人。而我们坚信,肥胖的真正诱因仅仅是由于他们自身暴饮暴食或者缺乏锻炼所造成的。”

肥胖对职业生涯有害无益这已经是公开的秘密。Heather Brown (没有任何牵连)已经尝过了禁果。几年以前,她申请为波斯顿地区一个小的非营利机构做在线阅读工作,并成功地通过了电话应聘,被邀请到了办公室。

“在握住招聘人手时,我就知道她不会用我的了,”布朗太太说,“她用一种极端蔑视的眼光看着我,还讲了一大堆诸如我们应该走楼梯还是乘电梯去我们要谈话的房间此类的话。在真正面视的时候,她甚至没看我一眼,而是一直看着旁边。”布朗太太今年36岁,她现在在芝加哥附近的一所大学做主任助理,她说她甚至没有收到过一封“非聘人员感谢信”。

那个故事对于象Bill Fabrey这样的人来说简直是再熟悉不过的了,他1969年发现了国家先进肥胖病人聘用协会,这个组织的成果在于,他说,里面的会员对于因为他们的体重而失业或者晋升、甚至第一时间就被裁员有着各种各样的经历。

有些公然是来自医学专家对肥胖病人的歧视。Rebecca Puhl,是一位心理学诊所的医生,他是耶鲁RUDD食品政策及肥胖病研究中心主任,10多年来他一直潜心专研肥胖病症状的研究,620位初诊医生中有一大半被问及同样的课题,一种将肥胖病人描绘成“笨拙的、没有吸引力的、丑陋的和不太可能配合治疗的状态。”(最后一点尤为突出,因为医生认为病人不会听从他们的治疗方案,所以连给病人的医嘱都区别对待。)

Dr. Puhl 博士说她对医生们毫不隐讳地表达他们的偏见感到百思不得其解。“假如我试图学习性别或者种族歧视,我就不可以使用我现在所用的最基本的工具,因为人们不会坦诚以待,”她说,“他们想让自己的行为更加符合政策性一些。”

除了研究表明大多数人无法在相当长一段时间维持他们的体重以外,事实上非常清楚,医生企图把肥胖看作是个人对事物的一种责任。也许,他们把害羞和症状都看作是一种卫生保健的策略。

如果是这样,可行吗?不是那么凑效。许多肥胖病人简直就是采用回避医生的巡诊来规避,无论是常规检查、预防检查特惠计划甚至紧急保健问题。

的确,Dr. Peter A. Muennig博士,哥伦比亚保健策略副教授,症状比让肥胖病人远离医生更能说明问题:实际上它可以让肥胖病人生病。“症状和偏见可以产生巨大的压力,”他解释说。“压力使人更加注重身体,造成血压升高、血糖增高,你需要对每件事进行抗征或释放。”

久而久之,这种慢性的压力会导致高血压、糖尿病还有其它一些疾病,许多(令人吃惊地)都伴随着肥胖病发症。研究中, Dr. Muennig博士发现那些自称在脑力和体力上不堪重负的女性,要比那些对身材自我感觉良好的女性发病率更高,无论他们体重多少。

甚至医生无须不直接表达他们对体重问题的诊断,他们的偏见都能伤害到病人。一个最近的研究表明,医生对病人的尊重与病人的体重成反比。而且,医生对病人的尊重越少,Dr. Mary Huizinga博士说,研究引导作者和在约翰.贺浦金(Johns Hopkins)医疗学校助教,医生在病人身上花的时间就越少,他或她提供的信息也就越少。  

肥胖病影响了每一个人的健康---胖的、瘦的或身材匀称的。去年秋天,南宾西法立亚州林肯大学(Lincoln University in southern Pennsylvania)声明,所有的新人都必须量身高体重,并要求那些BMI超过30的人参加专门的减肥班。肥胖维权者保护他们的抗辩权益:减肥真的对学生健康有益吗?这难道不是每一位学生都应该参加的吗?

由于一起媒体的坏消息林肯大学的行政官退出了争端。 但是,辩论强调了肥胖病不是关于增强人们健康,当象 Delos Cosgrove 这样的医生坚持认为,如果这样的话,抗辩将更多地关注健康,而不是身高体重的人数和BMI图表。

贝肯(Dr. Bacon)博士说了这样一个故事,一个肥胖病的少女,正在穿过一个贴着“防止少女肥胖”标语的“ 康复运动”门厅,当标语贴起来之后,在大厅的学校同学开始嘲笑她,指着标语上的胖女孩说,“看那个肥鸡。”

她说,现在胖一点的学生对午餐的选择感到有罪恶感,但是甚至完全是和肥胖孩子一模一样的食物,瘦的孩子吃就什么话都没得说。 

 羞辱为瘦的孩子提供了思考的空间,大孩子是不是脑子有毛病呀?贝肯博士(Dr. Bacon),营养学研究员说,“这些对于他们自己的健康习惯有害无益,只有增进尊重和有效方法才是可取的。”

 

 

 

 


 

引用《纽约时报》英语原文:

 

 

 TEXT B        For Obese People, Prejudice in Plain Sight

 

 

 

As a woman whose height and weight put me in the obese category on the body-mass-index chart, I cringed when Michelle Obama recently spoke of putting her daughters on a diet. While I’m sure the first lady’s intentions are good, I’m also sure that her comments about childhood obesity will add yet another layer to the stigma of being overweight in America.

Last August, Dr. Delos M. Cosgrove, a cardiac surgeon and chief executive of the prestigious Cleveland Clinic, told a columnist for The New York Times that if he could get away with it legally, he would refuse to hire anyone who is obese. He probably could get away with it, actually, because no federal legislation protects the civil rights of fat workers, and only one state, Michigan, bans on the basis of weight.

Dr. Cosgrove may be unusually blunt , but he is far from alone. Public attitudes about fat have never been more judgmental; stigmatizing fat people has become not just acceptable but, in some circles, de rigueur. I’ve sat in meetings with colleagues who wouldn’t dream of disparaging anyone’s color, sex, economic status or general attractiveness, yet feel free to comment witheringly  on a person’s weight.

Over the last few years, fat people have become scapegoats for all manner of cultural ills. “There’s an atmosphere now where it’s O.K. to blame everything on weight,” said Dr. Linda Bacon, a nutrition researcher and the author of “Health at Every Size: The Surprising Truth About Your Weight” (Benbella, 2008). “If we’re worried about climate change, someone comes out with an article about how heavier people weigh more, so they require more fuel , and they blame the climate change crisis on fatter people. We have this strong belief system that it’s their fault, that it’s all about gluttony.”

It’s no secret that being fat is rarely good for your career. Heather Brown (no relation) has experienced this firsthand. A few years ago, she applied for a grant-writing job with a small nonprofit in the Boston area. After a successful phone interview, she was invited to the office.

“As soon as I shook the interviewer’s hand, I knew she would not hire me,” Ms. Brown said. “She gave me a look of utter disdain, and made a big deal about whether we should take the stairs or ride the elevator to the room where we were going to talk. During the actual interview, she would not even look at me and kept looking to the side.” Ms. Brown, 36, who now works as an assistant dean at a college near Chicago, said she never even got a “No thank you” letter after the interview.

 That story is all too familiar to people like Bill Fabrey, an advocate who in 1969 founded the National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance. The organization’s archives, he says, are full of stories from people who say they lost jobs or promotions because of their weight, or were not hired in the first place.

Some of the most blatant fat discrimination comes from medical professionals. Rebecca Puhl, a clinical psychologist and director of research at the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity at Yale, has been studying the stigma of obesity for more than a decade. More than half of the 620 primary care doctors questioned for one study described obese patients as “awkward, unattractive, ugly, and unlikely to comply with treatment.” (This last is significant, because doctors who think patients won’t follow their instructions treat and prescribe for them differently.)

Dr. Puhl said she was especially disturbed at how openly the doctors expressed their biases. “If I was trying to study gender or racial bias, I couldn’t use the assessment tools I’m using, because people wouldn’t be truthful,” she said. “They’d want to be more politically correct.”

Despite the abundance of research showing that most people are unable to make significant long-term changes in their weight, it’s clear that doctors tend to view obesity as a matter of personal responsibility. Perhaps they see shame and stigma as a health care strategy.

If so, is it working? Not very well. Many fat people sidestep such judgments by simply avoiding doctor visits, whether for routine checkups, preventive screenings or urgent health problems.

Indeed, Dr. Peter A. Muennig, an assistant professor of health policy at Columbia, says stigma can do more than keep fat people from the doctor: it can actually make them sick. “Stigma and prejudice are intensely stressful,” he explained. “Stress puts the body on full alert, which gets the blood pressure up, the sugar up, everything you need to fight or flee the predator.”

Over time, such chronic stress can lead to high blood pressure, diabetes and other medical ills, many of them (surprise!) associated with obesity. In studies, Dr. Muennig has found that women who say they feel they are too heavy suffer more mental and physical illness than women who say they feel fine about their size — no matter what they weigh.

Even if doctors don’t directly express weight-based judgments, their biases can hurt patients. One recent study shows that the higher a patient’s body mass, the less respect doctors express for that patient. And the less respect a doctor has for a patient, says Dr. Mary Huizinga, the study’s lead author and an assistant professor at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, the less time the doctor spends with the patient and the less information he or she offers.

 Fat stigma affects everyone’s health — fat, thin or in between. Last fall, Lincoln University in southern Pennsylvania announced that it would weigh and measure all freshmen, and require those with a B.M.I. over 30 to enroll in a special fitness class. Fat rights advocates protested it as discrimination:If the fitness class was that important to student health, shouldn’t everyone take it?

 Lincoln’s administrators backpedaled after a storm of bad press. But the controversy  underscores the fact that fat stigma isn’t about improving people’s health, as doctors like Delos Cosgrove contend. If it were, the conversation would be about health rather than numbers on the scale and the B.M.I. chart.

Dr. Bacon tells the story of an overweight teenage girl whose high school was going through a “wellness campaign.” Hallways were plastered with posters saying “Prevent teenage obesity.” After the posters went up, the girl said, schoolmates began taunting her in the halls, pointing at the obese girl on the posters and saying, “Look at the fat chick.”

She said heavier students were now made to feel guilty about their lunch choices, but the thin ones could eat anything they wanted without comment — even if it was exactly what the fat kids were eating.

“Stigmatization gives the thinner kids permission to think there’s something wrong with the larger kids,” Dr. Bacon, the nutrition researcher, said. “And it doesn’t help them look at their own health habits. There’s got to be a way to do this more respectfully and more effectively.”           

 

 

    (1161 words)

 

 

百度词典:

 

Cleveland Clinic, a non-profit academic medical center, provides clinical and hospital care and is a leader in research, education and health information.

BenBella Books | Book Publisher

BenBella Books is a boutique publishing house with an emphasis on creative marketing.

Obese(obese 【音标】:[?u'bi:s] 【词典解释】:形容词 a. 1. 肥胖的;过胖的 )

cringed 卑躬屈膝

obesity (obesity 【音标】:[?u'bi:siti] 【词典解释】:名词 n. 1. 肥胖;过胖; )

stigma (stigma 【音标】:['stigm?] 【词典解释】:名词 n. [C] 1. 耻辱,污名 2. 【植】柱头;眼点 3. 【动】气门;点斑;眼点)

cardiac (cardiac 【音标】:['kɑ:di?k] 【词典解释】:形容词 a. 1. 心脏的;心脏病的 名词 n. 1. 强心剂;心脏病患者)

prestigious (音标】:[pres'tid?i?s] 【词典解释】:形容词 a. 1. 有名望的;)

federal(federal 【音标】:['fed?r?l] 【词典解释】:形容词 a. 1. (常大写)美国联邦政府的,国家的 2. 联邦(制)的,联邦政府的)

legislation(legislation 【音标】:[,led?is'lei??n] 【词典解释】:名词 n. [U] 1. 制定法律,立法 2. 法律,法规; )

bans (ban 【音标】:[b?n] 【词典解释】:ban 名词 n. 1. 禁止;禁令[(+on/against)] 2. 褫夺公权的判决(或公告) 3. 禁忌)discrimination (discrimination 【音标】:[di,skrimi'nei??n] 【词典解释】:名词 n. [U] 1. 辨别,区别 2. 识别力,辨别力 3. 不公平待遇,歧视)

Michigan(密歇根州 Michigan 是美国的一个州。),

Michigan(密歇根州 Michigan 是美国的一个州。),

blunt(blunt 【音标】:[bl?nt] 【词典解释】:形容词 a. 1. 钝的,不锋利的 2. (头脑、感觉等)迟钝的 3. 耿直的,直率的;直言不讳的 4. 生硬的),

judgmental(judgment 【音标】:['d??d?m?nt] 【词典解释】:名词 n. 1. 审判;裁判;判决[(+on/upon)] 2. 判断;鉴定;评价);

stigmatizing(stigmatizing['stiɡm taiz] 1. 污辱,使蒙受耻辱: 例句: to stigmatize one's family使家庭蒙羞 2. 指责;非难:)

de rigueur(de rigueur  【词典解释】:固定词组 ph. 1. 【法】(时尚、习惯等)必须的;社交礼仪上必要的)

disparage 【音标】:[di'sp?rid?] 【词典解释】:及物动词 vt. 1. 贬低;轻视 2. 毁谤

witheringly (witheringly 【音标】:['wi??ri?li] 【词典解释】:副词 ad. 1. 使人不自在地;令人难堪地;令人觉得愚蠢地;)

scapegoats替罪羊

nutrition (nutrition 【音标】:[nju:'tri??n] 【词典解释】:名词 n. [U] 1. 营养,滋养 2. 营养物,滋养物,食物 3. 营养学;)

fuel(fuel 【音标】:['fju?l] 【词典解释】:名词 n. 1. 燃料 2. 刺激因素[(+for/of)] 及物动词 vt. 1. 对...供给燃料;给...加油),

blame(blame 【音标】:[bleim] 【词典解释】:及物动词 vt. 1. 责备,指责[(+on/for)] 2. 把...归咎(于);归因于[(+on/onto)] 3. 【美】【俚】诅咒)

gluttony( gluttony 【音标】:['gl?t?ni] 【词典解释】:名词 n. 1. 暴食;贪吃;)  or lack of exercise.”

blatant(blatant 的解释:adj. 喧嚣的,吵闹的,明目张胆的,炫耀的等)

discrimination 【音标】:[di,skrimi'nei??n] 【词典解释】:名词 n. [U] 1. 辨别,区别 2. 识别力,辨别力 3. 不公平待遇,歧视)

decade(decade 【音标】:['dekeid] 【词典解释】:名词 n. 1. 十 2. 十年)

racial(racial 【音标】:['rei??l] 【词典解释】:形容词 a. [Z] 1. 人种的,种族的 2. 种族之间的)

bias(bias 【音标】:['bai?s] 【词典解释】:名词 n. [C][U] 1. 偏见,成见;偏心 2. 倾向,趋势)

stigma(stigma 【音标】:['stigm?] 【词典解释】:名词 n. [C] 1. 耻辱,污名 2. 【植】柱头;眼点 3. 【动】气门;点斑;眼点 4. 【医】(病的)特征) 

routine(routine 【音标】:[ru:'ti:n] 【词典解释】:名词 n. 1. 例行公事;日常工作;惯例;惯常的程序 )

screenings(screenings 【音标】:['skri:ni?z] 【词典解释】:名词 n. 1. 残渣;碎屑;煤渣; )

predator(predator 【音标】:['pred?t?] 【词典解释】:名词 n. 1. 食肉动物;掠夺者).

chronic(chronic 【音标】:['kr?nik] 【词典解释】:形容词 a. [Z] 1. (病)慢性的;(人)久病的 2. 长期的,不断的 3. 惯常的,习惯性的)

diabetes(diabetes 【音标】:[,dai?'bi:ti:z] 【词典解释】:名词 n. 1. 糖尿病) 

 biases偏见的意思

 campaign(campaign 【音标】:[k?m'pein] 【词典解释】:名词 n. [C] 1. 战役 2. 运动,活动).

 hallway 【音标】:['h?:lwei] 【词典解释】:名词 n. 1. 【美】过道;门厅;走廊

 


附件:英语作业

 

同学们:

以下是从[纽约时报]上截取的两篇文章,分别为Text A(page2-4)和 Text B(page5-7), 第一篇长度为971个词,第二篇为1161个词。第一篇是讲关于美国对中国货币政策的反应,经济词汇较多,难度微大,第二篇主题为美国的肥胖问题,医学方面的词汇出现稍频。但是由于都只是报纸的文章,不至于专业词汇到了不能让人理解的地步。

要求:

1、请从这两篇中任选一篇翻译成中文,请注意,切不可直接用网络翻译工具整篇翻译,否则学习效果全无,此次作业是本课程唯一要求上交的作业,旨在训练同学们利用手头字典分析长句,联系上下文理解英文报章内容的能力。我会用网络翻译工具试译一遍,如发现任何人的中文翻译与网络翻译雷同,此次作业作0分处理。另外抄袭他人作业导致句法用词雷同的也作0分处理。

2、请同学们在一个月以内完成此次作业,本次作业最后期限为4月26号课前,可提早上交。逾期一周的减10分,超过一周不予接受,本次作业作0分处理。

3、请把作业打印或者手写在A4纸上。手写要求字迹清楚,在作业的开头注明姓名、学号、专业。

4、有任何疑问或者对课程的意见之类请联系我,我的邮箱是 (略)。非常乐意回答你的诸多疑问。

 

学习工作顺利。

 

陈老师

复旦大学外语学院

3月22日

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